1. All sea snakes are poisonous. These are the most venomous of all snakes.

2. They are identified by the laterally compressed (oar-shape tails.SEASNAKES-hydrophis









3. The belly plates are small and not broad. Eyes and fangs are small.


4. Nostrils are situated on the top of head and are valvular.

5. The poison of these snakes affects the nervous system.

6.Sea snakes are non-offensive by nature. They generally do m bite. However, their poison is exceedingly harmful to human beings.

7. The back of these snakes is dirty-green or dull-blue in color. All sea snakes are viviparous.


8. About 20 species of sea snakes are found in Indian seas. Eg. : Enhydrina, Hydrophis

COBRA:Naja naja

1. This is the common Indian cobra and it grows to a length of 11Meters.

2. The snake is usually brown or black in colour.COBRA-Naja naja

3. It has two black patches on the ventral side in the neck region

4. There is a well marked hood which is formed by the stretching of the cervical ribs.

5. The hood bears a spectacle mark (biocellate mark) or an ova spot (monocellate) surrounded by an ellipse.

6. Sub-caudals are present in two rows.

7. Third supra-labial is the largest and it touches nasal shield and eye.

8. Cobras mainly feed on frogs, lizards, rats and small birds.

9. The female cobras lay about one to one and half a dozen soft-shelled eggs.COBRA-Naja naja

10. The poison of cobra affects the respiratory center in the brain
(neurotoxin) i.e., its venom affects nervous system.

KING COBRA-Naja hannah

1. It is recently referred to as Ophiophagus hannah (snake eating cobra) as it feeds on other snakes.kingcobra-naja hanna

2. It is also called Hamadryad. It is the world’s largest poisonous snake.

3. King cobra is a deadly poisonous snake.

4. It does not inhabit human dwellings and is found in thick jungles.

5. It has a dreadful appearance with a broad hood and grows to a length of 4-8 meters (18 feet,)

6. It possesses two characters of cobra i.e., presence ofhood and large third supra-labial touching the nasal shield and the eye.

7. The hood does not bear any mark but transverse and white bands are present.

8. Sub-caudals are single in the cloacal region and double towards the tip of tail.

9. Its color varies from yellowish to black and it has light yellow cross ridges around the body.kingcobra-naja hanna2

10.The poison of the snake is injected in large quantity, causes quick death due to respiratory paralysis.


1. Bungarus is tne generic name of Kraits present in India. Bungarus coerulus and Bungarus fasciatusare two important species found in India.bangarus-kraits

2. Kraits are identified by the presence of large hexagonal vertebral and the large fourth infralabial.

3. Kraits feed on mice and frogs.

4. Kraits are nocturnal snakes.

5. Venom of kraits affects nervous system and it is very virulent than the poison of cobras (neurotoxic).

6. Sub-caudals are present in a single row.

A.Bungarus coerulus (common banded krait) is bluish black on the dorsal side with incomplete white cross bands extending from the neck region to the tip of tail. The poison of this snake is very virulent (three times more poisonous than that of cobra’s poison). The ventral side is white throughout the length.


B- Bungarus fasciatus is commonly known as yellow banded-krait. This is larger than the common krait. It has broad cross bands all over body. The general colour is yellow with blackish rings at equal distances. This gives a beautiful, but dreadful appearance to the krait. Its poison is more virulent (seven to fourteen times more poisonous than cobra’s poison).

RUSSELS VIPER (Vipera russelli)

1. This is the largest viper, growing to a length of 1.5 meters. It is commonly known as chain viper.RUSSELS VIPER

2. They are brown in color and there are 3 rows of large diamond shaped spots on the dorsal side of the body.

3. The nostrils are large in size than those of any other poisonous snake.

4. The tail is small with two rows of sub-caudals.

5. It is a pit less viper and viviparous (giving birth directly to young ones).

6. Fangs are long and folded back against the roof of the mouth when not in use (solenoglyphs). Behind the fangs there are no teeth except on palatines.

7. The head bears a ‘V’-shaped marking.


8. It is a nocturnal creature and feeds on rats and toads.

9. Poison is haemo toxic acting on blood vascular system.

PHOORSA (Echis carinata)

1. It is another pit less viper. It is commonly known as saw scaled viper or little Indian viper.PHOORSA (Echis carinata)

2. It is a small viper growing to a length of about 60 cms.

3. The scales are keeled and provided with minute teeth, like a saw, hence the name saw-scaled viper.

4. When excited, it produces a hissing sound by rubbing the toothed scales of the body. Hence Echis is also calledPhoorsa.

5. Sub-caudals are arranged in a single row.

6. It usually lives in sandy areas where poor vegetation prevails. There is an arrow shaped mark on the head.

7. it is usually brown in color bearing white patches along the middle line of the back .

8. It feeds on mice, frogs and insects.PHOORSA Echis carinata1

9. It is a viviparous snake.

10.Its poison is haemo toxic.


1. Ancistrodon himalayensis is generally seen in the Himalayan region, which is commonly called theHimalayan pit viper.

2. Another species, Ancistrodon hypnale is found in South India and it is commonly called hump nosed viperas it possesses a ridge on the snout region.

3. A loreal pit is present in between the eye and nostril on each side. It is brown in colour bearing large black and white spots.

4. The head is covered with shields (not with small scales as in other vipers).

5. It is viviparous.

6. Its poison is haemotoxic.


1. It is called bamboo pit viper.

2. It is another pit viper with a loreal pit between the eye and the nasal aperture.

3. The body is brown in color.

4. It is commonly called horse shoe viper as it bears a horse shoe shaped mark on its neck region.

5. The head is covered with small scales.

6. Poison is haemotoxic.

coral snakes

1. Hemibungarus and Callophis are the generic names of coral snakes.coral snakes

2. They are small and most brilliantly coloured terrestrial snakes.

3. They are not very dangerous to human beings, although they are poisonous.

4. These snakes are identified by the presence of a large third supra-labial touching the shield and eye as in the case of Cobras, however, there is no hood.

The belly bears peculiar spots.

a. Hemibungarus nigriscens

It grows to a length of about 1 foot. This is the common coral snake of South India. Its head and neck are black with yellow spots. The dorsal part of the trunk is light violet in color, while belly is red in color. The tail bears two dark rings. It is not harmful to man. It lives in the forests of Mysore, Kerala and Annamalai.

b. Callophis nigriscens

It is another coral snake of about 1.1 meters in length. The body is slender with a narrow neck. The dorsal part is pale red in color. The head and neck are black. It lives in the forests of Nilagiri, Kerala, Annamalai and Andhra Pradesh.

1 comment:

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